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Product Name
:
F CILLIN
Chemical Name
:
Flucloxacillin (Sodium)
Therapeutic Category
:
Antimicrobial
Pharmacologic Category
:
Antibiotic, Penicillin
Pharmaceutical Form
:
Capsules
Composition
:
Flucloxacillin (Sodium) 500mg
Monitoring Parameters
Dosing
 
Dosing: Adult
Usual adult dosage (including elderly patients)
Oral - 250 mg four times a day.
Osteomyelitis, endocarditis - Up to 8 g daily, in divided doses six to eight hourly.

Dosing: Pediatric

2-10 years: half adult dose.
Under 2 years: quarter adult dose.

Dosing: Geriatric

Refer to adult dosing.

Dosing: Renal Impairment

In common with other penicillins, Flucloxacillin usage in patients with renal impairment does not usually require dosage reduction. However, in the presence of severe renal failure (creatinine clearance < 10 ml/min) a reduction in dose or an extension of dose interval should be considered. Flucloxacillin is not significantly removed by dialysis and hence no supplementary dosages need to be administered either during, or at the end of the dialysis period.
Use
 
Flucloxacillin is indicated for the treatment of infections due to sensitive Gram-positive organisms, including β-lactamase-producing staphylococci and streptococci. Typical indications include:
Skin and soft tissue infections:
Boils
Cellulitis
Infected burns
Abscesses
Infected skin conditions
Protection for skin grafts
Carbuncles
e.g. ulcer, eczema, and acne
Impetigo
Furunculosis
Infected wounds
 
Respiratory tract infections:
Pneumonia
Lung abscess
Empyema
Sinusitis
Pharyngitis
Otitis media and externa
Tonsillitis
Quinsy
 
Other infections caused by Floxapen-sensitive organisms:
Osteomyelitis
Urinary tract infection
 
Enteritis
Meningitis
 
Endocarditis
Septicaemia
 

Flucloxacillin is also indicated for use as a prophylactic agent during major surgical procedures when appropriate; for example cardiothoracic and orthopaedic surgery.
Parenteral usage is indicated where oral dosage is inappropriate.
Adverse Reactions
 

The following convention has been utilised for the classification of undesirable effects:- Very common (>1/10), common (>1/100, <1/10), uncommon (>1/1000, <1/100), rare (>1/10,000, <1/1000), very rare ( <1/10,000).

Unless otherwise stated, the frequency of the adverse events has been derived from more than 30 years of post-marketing reports.

Blood and lymphatic system disorders

Very rare: Neutropenia (including agranulocytosis) and thrombocytopenia. These are reversible when treatment is discontinued. Haemolytic anaemia.

Immune system disorders

Very rare: Anaphylactic shock (exceptional with oral administration) (see Item 4.4 Warnings), angioneurotic oedema.

If any hypersensitivity reaction occurs, the treatment should be discontinued. (See also Skin and subcutaneous tissue disorders).

Gastrointestinal disorders
*Common: Minor gastrointestinal disturbances.
Very rare: Pseudomembranous colitis.

If pseudomembranous colitis develops, flucloxacillin treatment should be discontinued and appropriate therapy, e.g. oral vancomycin should be initiated.

Hepato-biliary disorders

Very rare: Hepatitis and cholestatic jaundice. Changes in liver function laboratory test results (reversible when treatment is discontinued).

These reactions are related neither to the dose nor to the route of administration. The onset of these effects may be delayed for up to two months post-treatment; in several cases the course of the reactions has been protracted and lasted for some months. Hepatic events may be severe and in very rare circumstances a fatal outcome has been reported. Most reports of deaths have been in patients ≥ 50 years and in patients with serious underlying disease.

Skin and subcutaneous tissue disorders
*Uncommon: Rash, urticaria and purpura.

Very rare: Erythema multiforme, Stevens-Johnson syndrome and toxic epidermal necrolysis.

(See also Immune system disorders).
Musculoskeletal and connective tissue disorders

Very rare: Arthralgia and myalgia sometimes develop more than 48 hours after the start of the treatment.

Renal and urinary disorders
Very rare: Interstitial nephritis.
This is reversible when treatment is discontinued.
General disorders and administration site conditions

Very rare: Fever sometimes develops more than 48 hours after the start of the treatment.

*The incidence of these AEs was derived from clinical studies involving a total of approximately 929 adult and paediatric patients taking flucloxacillin.

Contraindications
 
Flucloxacillin should not be given to patients with a history of hypersensitivity to β-lactam antibiotics (e.g. penicillins, cephalosporins) or excipients.
Flucloxacillin is contra-indicated in patients with a previous history of flucloxacillin-associated jaundice/hepatic dysfunction.
Warnings / Precautions Drug
 
Before initiating therapy with flucloxacillin, careful enquiry should be made concerning previous hypersensitivity reactions to β-lactams.
Serious and occasionally fatal hypersensitivity reactions (anaphylaxis) have been reported in patients receiving β-lactam antibiotics. Although anaphylaxis is more frequent following parenteral therapy, it has occurred in patients on oral therapy. These reactions are more likely to occur in individuals with a history of β-lactam hypersensitivity.
If anaphylaxis occurs flucloxacillin should be discontinued and the appropriate therapy instituted. Serious anaphylactic reactions may require immediate emergency treatment with adrenaline (epinephrine). Ensure adequate airway and ventilation and give 100% oxygen. IV crystalloids, hydrocortisone, antihistamine and nebulised bronchodilators may also be required.
Flucloxacillin should be used with caution in patients with evidence of hepatic dysfunction, patients ≥ 50 years and those with serious underlying disease. In these patients, hepatic events may be severe, and in very rare circumstances, deaths have been reported .
The use of flucloxacillin (like other penicillins) in patients with renal impairment does not usually require dosage reduction. In the presence of severe renal failure (creatinine clearance less than 10ml/min), however, a reduction in dose or an extension of dose interval should be considered because of the risk of neurotoxicity
During prolonged treatments (e.g. osteomyelitis, endocarditis), regular monitoring of hepatic and renal functions is recommended.
Prolonged use may occasionally result in overgrowth of non-susceptible organisms.
Interactions
 
Probenecid decreases the renal tubular secretion of flucloxacillin. Concurrent administration of probenecid delays the renal excretion of flucloxacillin.
In common with other antibiotics, flucloxacillin may affect the gut flora, leading to lower oestrogen reabsorption and reduced efficacy of combined oral contraceptives
Pregnancy
 
Pregnancy Implications

Animal studies with flucloxacillin have shown no teratogenic effects. The product has been in clinical use since 1970 and the limited number of reported cases of use in human pregnancy have shown no evidence of untoward effects. The decision to administer any drug during pregnancy should be taken with the utmost care. Therefore flucloxacillin should only be used in pregnancy when the potential benefits outweigh the potential risks associated with treatment.
Lactation
 
Trace quantities of flucloxacillin can be detected in breast milk. The possibility of hypersensitivity reactions must be considered in breast-feeding infants. Therefore flucloxacillin should only be administered to a breast-feeding mother when the potential benefits outweigh the potential risks associated with the treatment.
Mechanism of Action
 
Flucloxacillin is an isoxazolyl penicillin of the β-lactam group of antibiotics which exerts a bactericidal effect upon many Gram-positive organisms including β-lactamase-producing staphylococci and streptococci.
Pharmacodynamics / Kinetics
 

Absorption: Flucloxacillin is stable in acid media and can therefore be administered either by the oral or parenteral route. The peak serum levels of flucloxacillin reached after one hour are as follows.

- After 250 mg by the oral route (in fasting subjects): Approximately 8.8 mg/l.

- After 500 mg by the oral route (in fasting subjects): Approximately 14.5mg/l.

The total quantity absorbed by the oral route represents approximately 79% of the quantity administered.

Distribution: Flucloxacillin diffuses well into most tissue. Specifically, active concentrations of flucloxacillin have been recovered in bones: 11.6 mg/l (compact bone) and 15.6 mg/l (spongy bone), with a mean serum level of 8.9 mg/l.

Crossing the meningeal barrier: Flucloxacillin diffuses in only small proportion into the cerebrospinal fluid of subjects whose meninges are not inflamed.

Crossing into mother's milk: Flucloxacillin is excreted in small quantities in mother's milk.

Metabolism: In normal subjects approximately 10% of the flucloxacillin administered is metabolised to penicilloic acid. The elimination half-life of flucloxacillin is in the order of 53 minutes.

Excretion: Excretion occurs mainly through the kidney. Between 65.5% (oral route) and 76.1% (parenteral route) of the dose administered is recovered in unaltered active form in the urine within 8 hours. A small portion of the dose administered is excreted in the bile. The excretion of flucloxacillin is slowed in cases of renal failure.

Protein binding: The serum protein-binding rate is 95%.
 
   
 
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